Walking is easy, mainly sweat-free, and an effective form of exercise. A Harvard study indicated that walking just three hours per week resulted in a 35% smaller chance of heart attack (1). A common objection to walking as a viable form of exercise is it's too easy, fails to raise heart rate high enough, and only not enjoyable.
Despite these objections, the many health benefits of walking largely outweigh the opportunity cost of a few hours per week spent exercising, even more so for seniors.
14 Benefits of Walking for Seniors
1. Walking maintains a healthy body weight
Physical activity is naturally associated with weight loss. People who lead sedentary lifestyles often suffer from various health problems, including obesity (2). Research indicates that walking one hour per day decreases the risk of obesity by 24% (2). Walking itself can and will lead to weight loss, especially by sprucing up your exercise routine.
Strap ankle weights on while walking, use light dumbbells, or very short periods of faster travel with longer periods of slower walking to catch your breath. Pairing exercise with a healthy diet is likely to maintain a healthy weight even further than simply walking itself. However, you decide to bipedal -- that's just a fancy term for walking -- get started as soon as possible to start reaping weight loss benefits.
2. Keep muscles in shape
Walking incorporates virtually every muscle in the human body, from tendons in your feet all the way up to your shoulders. This simple yet effective exercise raises heart rate, working your cardiovascular system, an area particularly vulnerable in those of older age. While it may not stimulate muscle fibers enough to gain or tone muscles like biceps or glutes, walking certainly does exercise organ systems and muscles.
Quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and upper body muscles are all exercise by walking. Large muscles on the front of your legs, called quadriceps, prevent you from tripping and increase mobility. Hamstrings are opposite of the quads, whose primary function is shared between walking and hip stabilization.
Calves are also used when walking, although their main purpose is to pump blood from lower extremities back up to the heart. Abdominal muscles are exercised, stabilizing the upright body and withholding organs. Shoulder muscles are stimulated when walking, involved in practically every arm movement (3). All these muscle groups -- and more -- are properly maintained when walking, keeping you healthy.
3. Lift mood and increase happiness
Anxiety manifests itself in a variety of ways, including phobias, OCD, panic disorder, and social anxiety. The Anxiety and Depression Association of America estimate that a whopping eighteen percent of Americans are affected by various anxiety disorders (4).
Depression interferes with daily activities, ranging from washing dishes to important work-related projects. This mental disorder also projects itself in sleep, concentration, and motivation problems. About 6.7% of United States adults incurred at least one episode of major depression -- stints of depression persisting at least two weeks -- throughout 2015 (5).
Many people struggle with depression and anxiety, as their symptoms discourage sufferers from actively taking steps to better their mental health. Exercise -- including activities as simple as walking -- improves mental health through releasing "feel-good" chemicals like endorphins and dopamine, busting up depression-related immune system chemicals, and increasing social interaction (6, 7).
Humans are meant to stay active, with our body structure being designed appropriately for long-distance running (8). Physical activity is unarguably part of human nature, supported by the many mental health benefits of walking associated with it.
4. Walking boosts circulation and decreases risk of cardiovascular problems
Experts at Harvard analyzed 4,295 studies on the benefits of heart health and regular walking, finding that 31% fewer cardiovascular events occurred in those who regularly walked (1). This easy exercise is associated with decreased risk of heart disease, as well (9).
Regardless of how long you walk each day -- or week, for that matter -- any increase in time spent and distances traveled walking helps decreases cardiovascular problems, at least a little bit.
Another study carried out in 1999 indicated that senior men who walked less than a quarter-mile per day, compared to those who walked at least 1.5 miles per day, were two times as likely to develop coronary heart disease (10). It does help, even though it may seem too simple and less demanding than other, more strenuous forms of exercise.
You don't have to get out and about, dressed to impress, and travel to trails or indoor exercise facilities to reap the benefits of bipedalism. People with poor circulation in legs and feet who regularly walked at home were found to have a lower prevalence of peripheral artery disease, a condition that causes discomfort in lower extremities and reduces the ability to walk (11).
Get active and reap the benefits of walking every day for yourself, whether you get out and visit a calming trail nestled between thick trees and shrubs or only exercise in the comfort of your own home.
5. Sleep more soundly
Getting enough quality sleep on a regular basis is associated with a wealth of health benefits. Consistent, sufficient sleep is shown to boost mood and mental health problems, reduce risky behaviors, and increase critical reasoning skills (12). Those who fail to exercise regularly are often faced with these problems, resulting directly from lack of proper sleep.
Walking 30 minutes a day helps reduce both instance and severity of insomnia. It also reduces the amount of time lying awake before falling asleep and boosts hours spent sleeping on days in which people exercise (13).
Melatonin is a chemical naturally occurring in our brains that help regulate sleep cycles, making us feel tired when it's time for bed and urging us to wake up at appropriate times (14).
While it may not increase levels, exercise helps potentiate the effects of melatonin on our sleep patterns (15). Walking daily is scientifically shown to help the average person get to bed and rest longer, and just may help you with these problems as well.
6. Safeguards against osteoporosis and its sister osteoarthritis
The osteo family is not kind to older populations, often manifesting itself in seniors (16). Osteoporosis is a disease in which its sufferers' bones are easily broken, brittle, and weak. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that is characterized by tissue near the end of bones wearing down, becoming thin and weak. It often results in joint stiffness and pain.
Low-impact exercises often aid seniors in helping fight and prevent both of these osteo-related health problems (17). Running, weightlifting and other high-impact exercises result in pain and possibly permanent damage to bones, joints, and tissues holding bones together.
Swimming can be helpful in dealing with these health problems, but not everybody has access to a pool. As such, walking is ideal for most seniors suffering from and at risk for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.
Even walking may cause problems in those with weak, fragile bones; watch out for the pain that lasts longer than one hour after exercise, as such discomfort is often a result of overuse (17).
7. Make concentrating easier
Many people have problems with keeping focused on tasks at hand or remembering things. This is often true for seniors, with grandpas around the world thinking every day, "Where did I leave my keys," or "What did I need to take care of today?"
A University of Toronto study found that seniors feature lower brain activity in segments that facilitate concentration (18). A similar study at the University of Illinois found that older people, compared to young adults, were more often distracted by short, repeated sounds (18).
Fortunately, there are more treatments to boosting concentration than potentially harmful stimulant ADHD medications. Walking outside is shown to increase concentration after walking only 20 minutes outdoors.
Exercising outdoors is also proved to be more beneficial than doing so inside, according to the same study (19). Simply being outside can even nix mental fatigue, something many seniors struggle with. Cognitive benefits of walking every day similar to the above have also been demonstrated in aged adults, as well, according to experts at the University of Illinois' Frontiers of Aging Neuroscience (20).
8. Give new life to worn-out joints
It goes without saying that health problems of all sorts are more prevalent in older than younger adults. Joints crack, creak, and cause pain in seniors quite often, with musculoskeletal disorders among the most widespread affecting the elderly (21).
Such bone problems often manifest themselves in difficulties walking; arguably nothing is more annoying than requiring help in traversing around one's own home. Fortunately, exercise as simple as walking can help prevent joint pain and stiffness.
The world-renowned Mayo Clinic suggests that light exercise boosts flexibility, reduces stiffness and joint pain, and can even help with fatigue (22). The Mayo Clinic also identifies a failure to exercise resulting in increased discomfort and stiffness.
Keep in mind that high-impact activities like running and exercising for long periods of time may worsen joint health, so older people should certainly stick to walking. Benefits of walking include loosening up muscles, tendons, and ligaments surrounding joints, as well as bettering the health of joints themselves. Not exercising does the polar opposite, increasing discomfort and inabilities to move freely in joints.
9. Level out balance and boost mobility
Another pair of the many benefits of walking for seniors includes increased mobility and balance. Decreased mobility in seniors roots itself in a variety of causes, including bone fractures, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, pain, and side effects of medication (23).
An inability to maintain upright stability while walking usually manifests itself in tripping when climbing stairs, falling after bending over and standing up, and staggered walking (24). With so many causes and negative associations with decreased mobility, it may seem that virtually every senior has these problems.
Without legs, humans would have a tough time getting around. Walking is obviously an integral part of life. As the cliché goes, a body in motion stays in motion -- and it's true!
Walking is virtually required to maintain unassisted transportation (25). The easy, breezy exercise of walking benefits mobility by fortifying the sense of balance and maintaining strength in legs and feet (25).
10. Live longer
Look up about three lines: a body in motion stays in motion. Not only does walking boost mobility: it helps older adults live longer lives. The United States National Cancer Institute discovered that physically active adults older than 40 years of age lived an average of two to seven years longer than their non-active counterparts (26). The study also suggested that even slight upticks in daily exercise are likely to boost life expectancies (26).
Walking is a viable form of exercise for increasing longevity. While no indicators or behaviors can be reliably used to gauge how long a person lives with complete precision, walking speed is quite accurate for predicting the length of life.
A University of Pittsburgh study found that people older than 65 who walked 0.8 meters per second had average life expectancies, while those who walked at least 1 meter per second lived longer, on average than those with slower gait speeds (27).
11. Helps reduce risk of cancer
Cancer is unarguably one of the today's most major health problems. Cancer itself 's hard enough to deal with itself, let alone chemotherapy, radiation, and potentially harmful medications that may leave patients feeling dopey.
The most recently available statistics on cancer in the United States shows that slightly more than 37% of those affected by cancer pass away due to the disease (28).
Studies on colon cancer indicate that victims with high levels of physical activity are about 24% less likely to come down with colon cancer than those with low levels (29). Another study shows that women who regularly exercise are about 12% less likely to get breast cancer as opposed to those without exercise routines (29).
Unfortunately, not every type of cancer was found less often in those who exercise more frequently in many cancers. However, walking is very much physical activity, a great way for seniors to stay devoid of some cancers.
While nothing can unquestionably prevent cancer from manifesting its evil, heart-wrenching self in any person, walking may very well result in lower risks of cancer for you.
12. It reduces likelihood of diabetes, too
Human pancreases create insulin, helping regulate levels of body sugars. When our bodies don't produce enough insulin or utilize it correctly, we call it diabetes. There are two types of this sometimes-deadly disease: Type 1, which starts in childhood; and Type 2, occurring later in life from obesity, physical inactivity, and other causes (30).
Type 1 diabetes, unfortunately, cannot be prevented. Doctors and medical researchers currently don't understand the specifics of Type 1's causes, although they are birthed in a combination of genetic, environmental, and autoimmune factors. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, can be safeguarded against through exercise (30).
For those who already have diabetes -- and 29 million Americans do -- exercise, including walking, is essential in managing the disease (31, 32). Being physically active causes your body's cells to be more receptive to insulin, helping your body's existing supply be used more efficiently (32). Excess glucose, the same chemical diabetics' bodies have trouble regulating, is reduced during exercise, as well (32).
13. Strengthens your immune system
Walking 30 minutes a day -- it seems too simple doesn't it? -- can aid your immune system in combatting infection (33). Exercise does boost immune system function, although nobody knows exactly how. Many theories exist for explaining the basis of exercise's positive effect on immunity, none of them have been proven.
These ideas include: exercise pushes bacteria out of airways, reducing the risk of infection and other ailments; it increases amount of antibodies and white blood cells; rising temperatures resulting from physical activity rid the body of prime bacterial-growing environments and fight infection, and it also blocks stress hormones that may facilitate illnesses (34).
Make an effort to walk more than normal around the house, take laps on the outside, or go golfing. All of these exercises are low-impact and yield the benefits of increased immune system function, not to mention the many other benefits walking is associated with.
14. Makes socializing easier
Empathy, communication, and a multitude of other human factors necessitate socializing. Social engagement is linked to several physical and mental health benefits, including fewer incidents of depression and anxiety, living longer lives, and lower chances of developing dementia (35).
Being social is as simple as playing group sports, volunteering, or participating in other social groups -- or walking.
Thanks to technology, those who spend more time inside -- like potentially immobile, usually unemployed seniors -- people can communicate with others using technology like Skype, FaceTime, or social media.
Unfortunately, these easy yet exercise-free activities do not stimulate our bodies. This simple exercise offers a host of walking benefits, along with the added advantage of more natural socialization with others.
People often exercise in groups, as having partners makes it easier to stay true to exercise plans. Even without established exercise buddies, socializing with others on walking trails or in exercise centers is easy.
Things to Remember Before Starting a Walking Routine
1. Check with a physician
While exercise is commonly viewed as an integral part of normal body functions and good health, some forms of exercise may not be ideal for your particular overall health and conditions. Young adults with no known health problems can pick up exercise routines as they see fit. Seniors, however, are recommended first to consult their doctor.
Seniors with heart disease, asthma, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, recently-cured cancer, acute chest pain, and any other questionable health conditions should always consult a physician before exercising (36).
Although walking is low-impact and less physically demanding than many other activities, it may result in new complications or exacerbations of conditions. You undoubtedly should schedule a physical with a trained healthcare professional, although the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire is a good starting point for determining whether exercise is OK for you (37).
2. Don't jump directly into strenuous exercise
Exercise caution in starting new-to-you physical activity programs, regardless of advice from Internet sources, personal trainers, or friends and family. Nobody understands your body as well as you -- and doctors, physicians' assistants, and nurse practitioners, of course.
Even if you feel ready to run a marathon, your body may not be as ready as your mental outlook towards starting an exercise regime. You should consider walking short, paced distances inside or around your home with a friend, family member, or caretaker nearby to contact help if needed.
Remember, there's always tomorrow, so ease into your planned walking program no matter how prepared you think you are.
3. Always stretch before and after walking
Muscles, like virtually every other body part, become rigid and less mobile as people age. Stretching is vital in increasing range of motion, physical performance, and lowering the likelihood of incurring injury (38). Simple stretching exercises are usually ideal for seniors as their joints, muscles, and ligaments are rustier than younger, more physically able populations.
Dedicated, proper stretching habits can result in higher flexibility, allowing your muscles to perform to fuller potentials (38). Read up on proper stretching techniques, then try out these flexibility exercises: back twists, ankle bends, hamstring pulls, thigh stretches, and hip flexes (39).
If in doubt of whether your body can handle various stretches or how to perform them correctly, contact a certified professional trainer or healthcare professional.
4. Put on loose, athletic-friendly gear
Most people care about their appearance when going out in public. It's always nice to wear attractive, trendy gear while exercising, as well. However, wearing clothes that fit appropriately for exercise is important while walking, especially for seniors.
Seek out loose clothing that facilitates free movement in lower extremities and arms alike. Breezy, non-tight garments also offer the added benefit of staying cool, as they help air out sweaty skin (40).
Be mindful of colors, too -- in warmer months, pick out lighter colors for helping fend off heat. Aim for darker colors during colder times of the year, as they aid seniors in staying warm. Consider wearing layers of clothing during colder months; layers can always be peeled off if you get heated while exercising.
5. Select a secure area
People, natural occurrences, and other things often choose the path of least resistance. Criminals are no exception to this generality. Just think -- if you were a criminal, would you rather burglar into a secure, safeguarded home with security cameras, multiple doors and window locks, and owners with guns; or one with unlocked doors, no cameras, and owners out to vacation?
Criminals often take the path of least resistance in burglarizing, robbing, stealing, and committing other crimes. Thieves sometimes prey on seniors and those exercising, not to mention seniors who are exercising.
People exercising are focused on taking the next step or breath, how much longer they have to go, and what they're doing later that day, not being alert for potential criminals. Shoot for exercising during the day, in public, crowded, well-lit areas to reduce the risk of offenders interjecting during your workout.
6. Hard surfaces equal high impact
Seniors often deal with bone and joint problems like arthritis and osteoporosis. Jump roping, running, and weightlifting is types of exercises not ideal for older people, called high-impact activities.
When these activities are carried out on hard surfaces like concrete or asphalt, the impact is even further heightened. Simply walking on dense floors or compacted ground can result in the detriments of high-impact exercise.
Try to find grassy, soft, loamy areas to walk on. Walking on wood floors, as well, helps safeguard against bone problems in contrast with asphalt. You can gain access to these mediums by searching for outdoor walking trails, basketball gyms, and exercise centers. While young adults don't face these problems, seniors certainly may.
7. Exercise indoors during colder months
Cold weather spells t-r-o-u-b-l-e for everyone, particularly seniors, facilitating flu, frostbite, hypothermia, and other potential health complications (41). Hypothermia, or medically known as a sustained decrease in body temperature, rear is nasty head through physical and mental exhaustion, decrease in balance and coordination, memory loss, and shivering (42).
A key risk factor of undergoing hypothermia is staying outdoor for lengthy periods of time, even just the time it takes to walk (42).
Nearly every area of the United States gets brutally cold during wintertime, barring Florida and California -- and it can still get chilly in those sunshine-filled states. Seniors, regardless of where you live, should exercise indoors during colder months. Plan to exercise in the confines of your own home, at an indoor exercise facility, or anywhere else in a heated area.
8. Inspect yourself for injuries before exercising
Stretching before and after exercise, pacing yourself while walking, and wearing proper athletic gear can all help stave off injuries. However, even the most careful people still incur injuries at least once in their life, if not multiple times.
Seniors are less mobile, more prone to injuries, and more likely to suffer from various health problems. As such, exercising while injured is likely to exacerbate existing injuries, potentially resulting in complete immobility, forcing one's self to seek help urgently (43).
After warming up, ease into stretches to gauge potential injuries. Bend over, walk up stairs, and engage in light physical activity to determine if you may have any injuries. It's always better to be safe than sorry.
9. Nobody knows your body better than you
Let's face it -- few of us understand the behavior of disease- and illness-causing organisms, detailed human anatomy, and diagnosing health problems as well as trained healthcare professionals like doctors and physicians' assistants. Even though most of us aren't doctors, we individuals do know our bodies better than anyone else.
We recognize recurring health problems that affect us throughout our lives, pain and discomforts family members have passed onto us, and our tendencies while exercising.
As such, you should listen to your body if you feel you're pushing yourself too hard or aging on potential injuries. There's always tomorrow, so if you're not feeling up to speed, don't hesitate to take a day off from walking.
10. Make certain to stay hydrated
Human bodies are made up of between three-quarters and 55% water, on average (44). Staying hydrated is vital to maintaining normal body performance. Not having enough water in one's body can result in a plethora of health detriments, including delirium -- mainly present in seniors -- cardiovascular activity, and chronic diseases (44).
Exercise apparently makes people sweat, with some athletes losing up to ten percent of total, pre-exercise body weight as a result of exercise (44). Decreases in exercise performance have been linked to negative variances in hydration as little as two percent (44).
Even further, many people fail to hydrate adequately during exercise, feeling burdened by carrying around a canteen or water bottle during exercise (44).
Having a Hard Time Walking? A Walking Aid Can Help
Physical ability often decreases with age to do health problems, and simple effects aging has on human bodies. A recent study found that more than 30% of seniors had difficulty walking up a flight of stairs or longer than three blocks, along with 35% of those 65 and older featuring less-than-perfect gaits (medical terminology for the manner of walking) (45).
Even further, healthy seniors older than 70 years of age possess at least a 10 percent reduction in walking speed and stride length than younger adults (45).
Canes usually feature a single tip or four bases in the shape of a square. These assistance devices provide a platform for physically challenged persons to walk more optimally with. Consider walking with the help of a cane to walk longer distances and reduce the risk of potential injury.
Walkers offer further assistance for walking than canes do. Walkers feature four legs that seniors put weight on while moving around. They are made of sturdy, medical grade steel to prevent collapsing and buckling.
Some walkers have wheels on two legs to make getting around easier than without them. Walkers often have padded grips to prevent users from losing their grip and becoming injured.
Nearly every model offers warranties, as well, providing security in the event of breakage or bending. However, because medical manufacturers understand than injury-prone seniors use walkers more than any other age group, most walkers are crafted with superior quality.
Rollators are walkers on steroids, with wheels to help people get around more effectively than with both walkers and canes. These ever-helpful walking tools feature stable, smooth wheels and brakes to prevent seniors from falling over and slipping when placing support on them.
Rollators, unlike basic walkers with wheels, feature wheels on all four legs. Many models' wheels swivel around to further facilitate painless, breezy walking and maneuvering through difficult territory.
They are best for seniors with significant difficulties getting around and are often compatible with all surfaces, even grass, dirt, and sand. Search for models with wide wheels to better traverse surfaces other than wood, asphalt, and concrete.
Walking Sticks (Nordic Pole)
Walking sticks or Nordic Pole consists of 2 poles that you use to assist you when you walk. It has many benefits like it increases your cardio and calorie burn. It also lessens that impact when you walk.
Nordic poles also helps align your spine while strengthening your core. Most of all the use of these walking sticks helps assist seniors in walking and make walking fun and enjoyable again.
How to Keep Walking Fun
1. Exercise alongside friends, family, and those close to you
Walking is enjoyable for several reasons, including the release of your brain's "feel good" chemicals, finding comfort in relaxing countrysides, and being around other people. Exercising alongside others, especially those close to our hearts, makes walking more satisfying.
Making small talk, discussing current events, and gossiping about neighborhood happenings all can result in a more entertaining exercise experience.
Reach out to friends, family members, and those in organizations you're familiar with to seek out exercise partners. Consider walking certain days of the week or month with various partners, as many people may not have the time to meet your particular schedule.
Not only is walking with others more fun than going solo, but it's also been shown to help people stick to exercise routines more rigorously (46).
2. Set goals to reap more satisfaction
Beginning an exercise routine or regiment is often overwhelming, with participants naively expecting to see changes immediately following exercise. One of the many benefits of walking is being satisfied from reaching goals set for one's self.
Seniors who begin walking even just one quarter-mile per day should be proud of themselves for starting regular exercise.
Be careful not to exert yourself too much in attempting to reach goals, which may result in injury or physical exhaustion. Make an effort to increase walking speed or distances traveled by week, or even month.
Utilize computer spreadsheets or exercise-related mobile apps to chart increases in walking you make. Visualizing improvements you've made over time is usually far more rewarding than simply reviewing numerical values, even though they represent the same thing.
3. Regularly mix up walking routes
Exercising in the same facility or on only one walking trail may become monotonous quickly, resulting in less satisfaction reaped from exercising. Walking outside is associated with several benefits as compared to doing so indoors. Simply enjoying nature and its flora and fauna -- plants and animals -- is rewarding.
Search online for new walking trails to enjoy, safe hiking routes to travel, and exercise facilities to visit. Ask friends, family members, and others you often run into about places they exercise or are familiar with. Remember to exercise care in scoping out safe, secure places to reap the many benefits of walking.
4. Bring along a pet to accompany you
Dogs are known as man's best friend for their companionship, tendency to exhibit care, and even being able to seek help in the event of slips, falls, and injuries. Some dogs and cats -- and they usually must be trained, first -- can sense low blood sugar, precursors to seizures, and even cancer (47).
Pets need exercise, just like humans. Dogs have been trained for thousands of years to help humans in hunting and other jobs. Domesticated animals usually feel reward and satisfaction when completing tasks their owners set out for them (48).
Think about bringing your dog or cat along with you while walking for a more enjoyable experience for both of you. No animal likes being cooped up all day -- include them in your exercise routine!
As detailed, there are loads of benefits of walking for seniors, including better physical health outcomes and maintaining proper mental health. Not only is walking associated with many wellness advantages, but it's also rewarding, satisfying, and enjoyable.
This easy, low-impact exercise can help you socialize with friends and family, increase long-term mobility, and boost cardiovascular activity.
Walking can be done virtually anywhere: in the comfort of your own home, at popular exercise centers, through busy cityscapes, and on nature-intensive walking trails. This physical activity is free requires no equipment, and most seniors already have properly-fitting athletic wear in their wardrobes already. Start walking today and benefit from the many advantages of this simple, popular exercise immediately.
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(2) The National Center on Health, Physical Activity and Disability's Sedentary Lifestyle is Dangerous to Your Health
(3) AZ Central's What Muscles Does Walking Exercise?
(4) Anxiety and Depression Association of America's About ADAA, Facts & Statistics
(5) Anxiety and Depression Association of America's Understand The Facts of Depression
(6) WebMD's Exercise and Depression
(7) PubMed's Endorphines and Exercise
(8) Men's Health's Is Your Body Made For Running?
(9) US National Library of Medicine's Walking - the first steps in cardiovascular disease prevention
(10) US National Library of Medicine's Effects of walking on coronary heart disease in elderly men: the Honolulu Heart Program
(11) MedicineNet's Walking at home can help boost poor circulation in legs, study shows
(12) National Institute of Health's Why Is Sleep Important?
(13) National Sleep Foundation's How Does Exercise Help Those With Chronic Insomnia?
(14) WebMD's Melatonin - Overview
(15) Harvard's 8 Secrets to a Good Night's Sleep
(16) Medscape's Physical Therapy for Older Adults with Arthritis: What is Recommended?
(17) ArthoroLink's The benefits of exercise for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis
(18) Psychology Today's Attention Deficit Can Come with Old Age
(19) Business Insider's This Might Be The Easiest Way To Boost Concentration And Memory
(20) Happenchance's Walking to Improve Concentration
(21) US National Library of Medicine's Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly
(22) Mayo Clinic's Exercise helps ease arthritis pain and stiffness
(23) The Intentional Caregiver's Immobility Problems and Solutions
(24) NIH Senior Health's Balance Problems
(25) US National Library of Medicine's Promoting Mobility in Older People
(26) PLOS Medicine's Leisure Time Physical Activity of Moderate to Vigorous Intensity and Mortality: A Large Pooled Cohort Analysis
(27) Scientific American's Walking Speed Predicts Life Expectancy of Older Adults
(28) NIH National Cancer Institute's Cancer Statistics
(29) NIH National Cancer Institute's Physical Activity and Cancer
(30) CDC's Diabetes
(31) CDC's Diabetes Fact Sheet
(32) American Diabetes Association's Physical Activity is Important
(33) WebMD's 10 Immune System Boosters
(34) Medline Plus's Exercise and Immunity
(35) Psychology Today's The Health Benefits of Socializing
(36) Mayo Clinic's Exercise: When to check with your doctor first
(37) CSEP's The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone
(38) Mayo Clinics' Stretching: Focus on flexibility
(39) NIH Senior Health's Exercise: Exercises to Try
(40) GirlsHealth.gov's What to wear to work out
(41) Consumer Reports's 5 cold-weather health hazards, and how to stay safe
(42) WebMD's What is Hypothermia?
(43) WebMD's Workout Injuries: Prevention and Treatment
(44) Us National Library Of Medicine's Water, Hydration, and Health
(45) AAFP's Gait and Balance Disorders in Older Adults
(46) Active's Exercise buddy system helps partners stay the course
(47) WebMD's Pets' Amazing Abilities
(48) Bureau of Labor Statistics's Working with animals